Nunes, PRP, Barcelos, LC, Oliveira, AA, Furlanetto, R, Martins, FM, Resende, EAMR, and Orsatti, FL. Muscular strength adaptations and hormonal responses after two different multiple-set protocols of resistance training in postmenopausal women. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1276–1285, 2019—We studied the effects of 2 different resistance training (RT) multiple-set protocols (3 and 6 sets) on muscle strength and basal hormones concentrations in postmenopausal women (PW). Postmenopausal women were randomly allocated into 3 groups: control (CT, n = 12), low RT volume (LV = 3 sets for each exercise, n = 10), and high RT volume (HV = 6 sets for each exercise, n = 12). The LV and HV groups performed 8 exercises of a total body RT protocol 3 times a week, at 70% of 1 repetition maximum (1RM) for 16 weeks. Muscle strength and basal hormone concentrations were measured before and after RT. Our findings show that 3 sets or 6 sets at 70% of 1RM protocol increased muscular strength similarly after 16 weeks (sum of all exercises, LV: 37.7% and HV: 34.1% vs. CT: 2.1%, p < 0.001). Moreover, the RT volume does not affect basal levels of testosterone (TT) (LV: 0.02%, HV: −0.12%, and CT: 0.006%, p = 0.233), cortisol (C) (LV: 72.4%, HV: 36.8%, and CT: 16.8%, p = 0.892), insulin-like growth factor-1 (LV: 6.7%, HV: 7.3%, and CT: 4.1%, p = 0.802), dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate (LV: 0.1%, HV: −4.5%, and CT: −6.7%, p = 0.885), and TT:C ratio (LV: −0.9%, HV: −1.6%, and CT: −0.4%, p = 0.429). Our results suggest that 3 sets and 6 sets at 70% of 1RM seem to promote similar muscle strength gain. Thus, 3-set RT is a time efficient protocol for strength gain after 16 weeks in PW.