Secondary Logo

Institutional members access full text with Ovid®

Changes in Blood Concentration of Adenosine Triphosphate Metabolism Biomarkers During Incremental Exercise in Highly Trained Athletes of Different Sport Specializations

Włodarczyk, Michał1; Kusy, Krzysztof1; Słomińska, Ewa2; Krasiński, Zbigniew3; Zieliński, Jacek1

The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: May 2019 - Volume 33 - Issue 5 - p 1192–1200
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0000000000003133
Original Research

Włodarczyk, M, Kusy, K, Słomińska, E, Krasiński, Z, and Zieliński, J. Changes in blood concentration of adenosine triphosphate metabolism biomarkers during incremental exercise in highly trained athletes of different sport specializations. J Strength Cond Res 33(5): 1192–1200, 2019—We hypothesized that (a) high-level specialized sport training causes different adaptations that induce specific biomarker release dynamics during exercise and recovery and (b) skeletal muscle mass affects biomarker release. Eleven sprinters (21–30 years), 16 endurance runners (18–31 years), 12 futsal players (18–29 years), and 12 amateur runners as controls (22–33 years) were examined. Hypoxanthine (Hx), xanthine (X), uric acid (UA), ammonia (NH3), and lactate (LA) concentrations were determined at rest, during an incremental treadmill exercise test (every 3 minutes), and during recovery (5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 minutes after exercise). Hx, X, and UA concentration was determined from plasma, while LA and NH3 from whole blood, and muscle mass was assessed using dual X-ray absorptiometry method. At rest, during incremental exercise, and up to 30 minutes into the postexercise recovery period, sprinters had lowest Hx, X, and UA concentrations, and endurance athletes had lowest NH3 concentrations. For LA during exercise, the lowest concentrations were noted in endurance athletes, except when reaching maximum intensity, where the differences between groups were not significant. There were no significant correlations observed between skeletal muscle mass and biomarker concentration at maximal intensity and recovery in any group. In conclusion, the magnitude of exercise-induced biomarker concentration is only related to training adaptations through specific training profile but not to muscle mass. In addition, the results suggest that combined measuring of LA, NH3, and Hx concentration in blood is useful in indirectly reflecting key changes in exercise- and training-induced energy status. Further research should focus on studying how specific training sessions affect individual biomarker response in highly trained athletes.

1Human Movement Laboratory “LABTHLETICS”, Department of Athletics, Strength and Conditioning, Poznan University of Physical Education, Poznań, Poland;

2Department of Biochemistry, Medical University of Gdansk, Gdańsk, Poland; and

3Department of Vascular and Endovascular Surgery, Angiology and Phlebology, Poznan University of Medical Sciences, Poznań, Poland

Address correspondence to Jacek Zieliński,

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's Web site (

Copyright © 2019 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.