Reilly, TJ, Gebhardt, DL, Billing, DC, Greeves, JP, and Sharp, MA. Development and implementation of evidence-based physical employment standards: key challenges in the military context. J Strength Cond Res 29(11S): S28–S33, 2015—The use of evidence-based physical employment standards is critical in selecting individuals who can meet the requirements of arduous military occupations. The methods used to generate the physical assessments and standards are critical to the process and must withstand legal scrutiny. This article addresses the challenges encountered when developing, validating, and implementing physical standards and assessments. The challenges covered by the study include: (a) identification of critical job tasks and minimum requirements for performance of the tasks, (b) involvement of military personnel as subject-matter experts, (c) development of tests and criterion measures linked to critical job tasks, (d) determination of test performance standards, (e) evaluation of bias for protected groups, and (f) implementation, development of test policies, and revision of tests and standards.