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Biomechanical Analysis of Standing Long Jump From Varying Starting Positions

Mackala, Krzysztof1; Stodółka, Jacek1; Siemienski, Adam2; Ćoh, Milan3

The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: October 2013 - Volume 27 - Issue 10 - p 2674–2684
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31825fce65
Original Research

Mackala, K, Stodółka, J, Siemienski, A, and Ćoh, M. Biomechanical analysis of standing long jump from varying starting positions. J Strength Cond Res 27(10): 2674–2684, 2013—The purpose of this study was (a) to investigate the effect of the different foot movement (placement) during take-off and the initial knee joint angle used in standing long jump by the ground reaction forces analysis and 3-dimensional motion analysis (BTS SMART motion) and (b) investigate how the jump performances of different foot placement is related to the electromyography (EMG) activity (Noraxon) of 3 selected muscle groups (m. gastrocnemius, m. gluteus maximus, m. rectus femoris, m. tibialis anterior, m. biceps femoris, and m. vastus medialis). Six high caliber sprinters (100 m: 10.87 ± 0.38 seconds and 400 m: 46.75 ± 1.05 seconds) performed a series of jumps from parallel and straddle foot placement at take-off on a 2 force platform (Kistler model 9286B) to determine if a different pattern of take-off improves jumping distance. Using kinematic and kinetic data, the knee joint angle, the trajectories of center of mass (COM), magnitude of take-off peak force, and impulse during take-off phase were calculated. Average standing long jump performances with straddle foot placement were 13.58 cm (5.18%) above that from parallel feet placement. The take-off velocity with 90° knee initial angle initiation of take-off was not different (1.18 and 1.17 m·s−1, respectively) between the 2 jumps. The take-off angles on the COM trajectory also showed differences (69.87 and 66.8°, respectively) between each other. The contribution (EMG activation) made by the 6 muscles were almost the same during all phases for the 2 jumps; however, some differences can be found, in either unilateral (single leg) or sums of both legs (bilateral) measurements. A recommendation can be formulated that the contribution of straddle foot placement during take-off can significantly increase the value of power measurement especially when the evaluation requires a complex movement structure with the division on the left and right legs, for example, sprint start from block.

1Department of Track and Field

2Department of Biomechanics, University School of Physical Education in Wroclaw, Wroclaw, Poland

3Faculty of Sport, University of Ljubljana, Ljubljana, Slovenia

Address correspondence to Krzysztof Mackala,

Copyright © 2013 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.