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Isometric Force Development of Some Muscle Groups in Athletes

Doder, Dragan V; Babiak, Jan J; Janjić, Nataša J; Doder, Radoslava Ž

The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: January 2012 - Volume 26 - Issue 1 - p 293-298
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e31821d5c89
Original Research

Doder, DV, Babiak, JJ, Janjić, NJ, and Doder, RŽ. Isometric force development of some muscle groups in athletes. J Strength Cond Res 26(1): 293–298, 2012—In a large sample of both male and female athletes, subdivided by age and sex, a development curve of isometric muscule force (F̄) was analyzed for hand flexors, upper-body flexors and extensors, and knee extensors (PDS). A sample of 1,857 male and 1,009 female athletes, aged 8–30 years, subdivided by their age and sex, was used to measure the mean values of isometric muscle force of certain muscle groups by way of 5 topologically defined tests. Based on the results, isometric muscle force (F̄) development curves are shown and analyzed for the right-hand and left-hand (PLS) flexors, upper-body flexors (PTR), upper-body extensors (OTR), and knee extensors (ONO). The application of certain statistical programs gave rise to equations of the relationship between isometric force and age. The maximum mean value of PLS was chosen as the reference value or “the gold standard,” with which PTR, OTR, and ONO were subsequently compared. The relationships were 1:1:1:2.8:5.9 (for male athletes), and 1:1:1.3:3.2:5.2 (for female athletes). The newly derived relationship was recognized as “the canon.” The results may have practical application in athletes' fitness and conditioning. Every topologically defined muscle force has its own patterns and rules that should be closely followed in the training process, because any generalization may lead to false conclusions.

1Provincial Institute for Sport of Vojvodina, Novi Sad, Serbia; 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Orthopaedic Surgery and Traumatology Clinic, Novi Sad, Serbia; and 3Faculty of Medicine, University of Novi Sad, Clinic for Infections Diseases, Novi Sad, Serbia

Address correspondence to Dr. Dragan V. Doder,

Copyright © 2012 by the National Strength & Conditioning Association.