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Validity and Reliability Analysis of Cooper's 12-Minute Run and the Multistage Shuttle Run in Healthy Adults

Penry, Jason T; Wilcox, Anthony R; Yun, Joonkoo

The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: March 2011 - Volume 25 - Issue 3 - p 597-605
doi: 10.1519/JSC.0b013e3181cc2423
Original Research

Penry, JT, Wilcox, AR, and Yun, J. Validity and reliability analysis of Cooper's 12-minute run and the multistage shuttle run in healthy adults. J Strength Cond Res 25(3): 597-605, 2011-Field tests are a practical method to assess aerobic fitness, but they demonstrate greater error variability than laboratory tests. The principal goals of this study were to identify potential sources of systematic error in 2 commonly used field tests (Cooper's 12-minute run [12MR] and the multistage shuttle run [MSR]) and estimate the reliability of the 2 tests from these data. In addition, criterion-related validity evidence for field tests was evaluated via Bland-Altman plots. To assess trends across test protocol and test trials, 60 subjects (mean age = 21.8 ± 3.6 years) completed 6 test trials, including 3 trials of each field test. Of these 60 individuals, 21 volunteers completed an incremental treadmill run and expired gas analysis (TR) that was used to establish criterion-related validity evidence for the 2 field tests. G-study analysis of the field test data returned a high reliability coefficient (ϕ = 0.96), with the largest amount of systematic error variance (4.3%) attributable to an interaction between subjects and test occasions. The MSR predicted o2max scores lower than those measured in the laboratory setting (p < 0.01), whereas 12MR and TR scores were not different (p > 0.05). However, Bland-Altman plots showed the 12MR to underestimate o2max scores at lower o2max values and overestimate o2max scores at higher values, a trend not observed in the MSR data. These data suggest high overall reliability for o2max field tests in young, healthy individuals. Nevertheless, test administrators must use caution when attempting to use field test data to predict criterion o2max scores. The MSR appears to be a more useful tool than the 12MR because of a consistent mean bias across fitness levels.

Oregon State University, Corvallis, Oregon

Address correspondence to Jason T. Penry,

© 2011 National Strength and Conditioning Association