While both resistance training (RT) and cardiovascular (C) exercise have been shown to improve various health and fitness variables, there is still considerable debate regarding the optimal ordering of these modes of exercise within an exercise bout. It is often assumed that order should be dictated by the priority of the desired fitness outcomes. To determine the effects of performing C before RT (C-RT) or RT before C (RT-C) on strength, o2max, body composition, and LBM over the course of an 8-week exercise program. College females (N = 23,19.9 + 2.1 yrs; 162.6 + 21.6 cm; 60.9 + 11.8 kg) not engaged in a structured exercise program were randomly assigned to either a C-RT group (n = 13) or an RT-C group (n = 10). Subjects participated in 4 days of exercise per week over the 8-week study. The C component of the program consisted of 30 min of aerobic exercise at 70-80%HRR, and HR and RPE were monitored continuously. The RT component utilized a 3-way split routine (chest and back; shoulders, biceps, and triceps; lower body) with subjects performing 3 sets of 8-12 repetitions for 5-6 different exercises using a load equal to 90-100% 10RM. At the beginning and end of the 8 weeks, all subjects completed 2 days of testing to determine strength, o2max, and body composition. 10RM for chest press and leg press was used to determine strength and body composition was measured using air displacement plethysmography (BODPOD; Life Measurement, Inc.). There were significant improvements in chest press (Pre = 34.4 + 7.3 kg; Post = 46.1 + 8.8 kg; p < .001), leg press (Pre = 76.0 + 30.2 kg; Post = 105.5 + 33.4 kg; p < .001), o2max (Pre = 38.8 + 6.8 ml· kg−1· min−1; Post = 44.9 + 6.4 ml· kg−1· min−1; p < .001), and LBM (Pre = 43.2 + 6.4 kg; Post = 44.1 + 5.9 kg; p = .005) across both groups over the 8 weeks. Weight also significantly increased (Pre = 60.9 + 11.8 kg; Post = 61.7 + 10.8 kg; p = .038), but %BF did not change (Pre = 28.4 + 6.5 %; Post = 28.0 + 5.6 %; p = .46). There were no differences in fitness improvements as a function of group (p > .267). There were significant improvements in strength, aerobic capacity, and LBM over an 8-week combined RT and C training program in previously inactive college females. These improvements occurred regardless of the order in which RT and C were performed. There were no changes in %BF in either group, which may partly be a function of weight gain often seen in a college population over the course of a semester. Contrary to popular belief, it appears that fitness markers improve similarly regardless of the order of RT or C in a 4-day per week workout program. It is possible that differences may emerge with longer training programs or in a more active population. Given the similarities of fitness outcomes, it appears that the order of RT and C exercises for beginning exercisers should be organized based on personal preference as well as to facilitate adherence.