Inactivity is a major contributor to lifestyle-associated diseases such as obesity, heart disease, and osteoporosis. Something as simple as walking regularly can lessen the impact of these diseases, if done with sufficient frequency, intensity and duration. Pedometers are commonly used to monitor exercise prescriptions as they have been shown to be accurate and reliable. However, these studies have primarily focused on walking on level surfaces. This presents challenges to generalizing findings to the average adult whom in the course of a day ascends or descends stairs and hills, walks on different surfaces, and wears different footwear. These factors have the capacity to affect gait kinematics and therefore, the accuracy of the pedometer count. To test the ability of the pedometer to correctly measure step count while walking on level, inclined, and declined surfaces while wearing “tennis shoes”, “flip flops”, and no shoes. Nine male and 9 female college students (20.58 + 4.57 yr, 173.92 + 8.44 cm, 71.39 + 11.73 kg) classified as “minimum” risk per ACSM guidelines volunteered for this study. Participants wore an inexpensive, commercially available pedometer on each hip. After a warm up, each walked on a treadmill at 3.3 mph for 3 minutes for each of the experimental conditions, which were randomized for footwear and gradient. Steps for each trial were also tallied using handheld counters. A two-way within-subjects analysis of variance was conducted to evaluate the effect of footwear and grade on pedometer accuracy. No significant differences were found between the pedometer and handheld counts (p < .05). Significant differences were found in step counts between the footwear conditions (p = .002). Post-hoc analysis showed participants took significantly greater steps in the flip flop and barefoot conditions when compared with shoes (p < .016). No significant interactions were found. These results indicate that the pedometer was accurate in assessing step count under footwear and gradient conditions. These findings suggest that a commonly available pedometer possesses the sensitivity to pick up differences in gait kinematics related to a variety of footwear conditions.