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Force-Velocity Analysis of Strength-Training Techniques and Load

Implications for Training Strategy and Research

CRONIN, JOHN B.1; MCNAIR, PETER J.2; MARSHALL, ROBERT N.3

The Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research: February 2003 - Volume 17 - Issue 1 - p 148–155
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The purpose of this study was to investigate the force-velocity response of the neuromuscular system to a variety of concentric only, stretch-shorten cycle, and ballistic bench press movements. Twenty-seven men of an athletic background (21.9 ± 3.1 years, 89.0 ± 12.5 kg, 86.3 ± 13.6 kg 1 repetition maximum [1RM]) performed 4 types of bench presses, concentric only, concentric throw, rebound, and rebound throw, across loads of 30–80% 1RM. Average force output was unaffected by the technique used across all loads. Greater force output was recorded using higher loading intensities. The use of rebound was found to produce greater average velocities (12.3% higher mean across loads) and peak forces (14.1% higher mean across loads). Throw or ballistic training generated greater velocities across all loads (4.4% higher average velocity and 6.7% higher peak velocity), and acceleration-deceleration profiles provided greater movement pattern specificity. However, the movement velocities (0.69–1.68 m·s-1) associated with the loads used in this study did not approach actual movement velocities associated with functional performance. Suggestions were made as to how these findings may be applied to improve strength, power, and functional performance.

1Sport Performance Research Centre, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1020, New Zealand

2Neuromuscular Research Unit, School of Physiotherapy, Auckland University of Technology, Auckland 1020, New Zealand

3Eastern Institute of Technology, Taradale, New Zealand.

© 2003 National Strength and Conditioning Association