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Neurofeedback training on sensorimotor rhythmin marmoset monkeys

Philippens, Ingrid H.C.H.M.; Vanwersch, Raymond A.P.

doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3283360ba8

Neurofeedback research in a model closely related to humans is recommended to rule out placebo effects and unspecific factors bridging the gap between nonvalidated empirical and standardized controlled research. In this article, telemetric sensorimotor rhythm (SMR; 11–14 Hz) feedback training in the marmoset monkey is applied to examine the monkey's capability to voluntary control their brain activity. Four monkeys, provided with two epidural bioelectric electrodes above the sensorimotor cortex, were trained with positive reinforcement on SMR measured by online analyses of 1.28 s electroencephalogram epochs in 30-min sessions. These monkeys learned within five sessions to increase their α activity. The first evidence of nonhuman primates having an operant control over the SMR is provided, an initial step for a much-needed scientific basis to neurofeedback.

Department of Immunobiology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre, Rijswijk, The Netherlands

Correspondence to Dr Ingrid H.C.H.M. Philippens, PhD, Department of Immunobiology, Biomedical Primate Research Centre (BPRC), PO Box 3306, 2280 GH Rijswijk, The Netherlands

Tel: +31 15 2842732; fax: +31 15 2842600; e-mail:

Received 17 November 2009 accepted 1 December 2009

© 2010 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.