BEHAVIOURElevated spectroscopic glutamate/γ-amino butyric acid in rats bred for learned helplessnessSartorius, Alexandera *; Mahlstedt, Magdalena M.a b *; Vollmayr, Barbaraa; Henn, Fritz A.a c; Ende, Gabrielea Author Information aCentral Institute of Mental Health, Mannheim, Germany bSchool of Pharmacy, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK cBrookhaven National Laboratory, Life Sciences Directorate, Upton, New York, USA Correspondence to Alexander Sartorius, Dipl. Phys., MD, Central Institute of Mental Health, J5, D-68159 Mannheim, Germany Tel: +49 621 1703 2984; fax: +49 621 1703 3165; e-mail: [email protected] *Alexander Sartorius and Magdalena M. Mahlstedt have contributed equally to the writing of this article. Received 4 May 2007; accepted 14 May 2007 NeuroReport 18(14):p 1469-1473, September 17, 2007. | DOI: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282742153 Buy Metrics Abstract The theory of depression is dominated by the monoamine hypothesis but there is increasing evidence that beyond monoamines, glutamate (Glu) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) play an essential role in the pathogenesis of depression. In this study, the effect of alterations of GABA and Glu were investigated in the congenital learned helplessness paradigm. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy is an important monitoring tool to bridge the findings in clinical and preclinical studies. We found increased Glu/GABA ratios in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of placebo-treated (saline intraperitoneally) congenital learned helplessness rats versus wild-type rats, and a treatment-induced (desipramine 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally or electroconvulsive shock) decrease of this monoamine ratio in both brain regions. Our results corroborate previous findings of an amino-acid influence on the pathomechanisms of mood disorders. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.