Brain ImagingCo-registration of cortical magnetic stimulation and functional magnetic resonance imagingBastings, Eric P.1,5; Gage, H. Donald2; Greenberg, Jason P.1; Hammond, Greg1; Hernandez, Luis3; Santago, Peter2; Hamilton, Craig A.2; Moody, Dixon M.2; Singh, Krish D.4; Ricci, Peter E.2; Pons, Tim P.3; Good, David C.1Author Information 1Department of Neurology, Sticht Center on Aging and Rehabilitation, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA 2Department of Radiology, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA 3Department of Neurosurgery, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC 27157, USA 4Vision Research Group, Department of Psychology, Royal Holloway University of London, Egham, Surrey, UK. 5Corresponding Author: Eric P. Bastings ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: We thank Tim Morgan for help in statistical analysis of the data. Website publication 20 June 1998 Received 18 March 1998; accepted 7 April 1998 NeuroReport: June 22nd, 1998 - Volume 9 - Issue 9 - p 1941-1946 Buy Abstract FUNCTIONAL magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) are noninvasive techniques recently used to investigate cortical motor physiology. However, these modalities measure different phenomena, and in studies of human motor control they have given inconsistent results. We have developed a reproducible technique which co-registers TMS and fMRI, using a frameless method. In four normal subjects, the TMS map and fMRI activation were present on the primary motor cortex contralateral to the target hand, with some extension into primary sensory cortex. fMRI activation alone was also present in the medial motor cortex bilaterally and in the sensori-motor cortex ipsilateral to the target hand. This technique allows a more comprehensive evaluation of the physiologic events involved in motor control. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.