Clinical NeuroscienceAltered cortical gyrification, sulcal depth, and fractal dimension in the autism spectrum disorder comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder than the autism spectrum disorderChen, Yajuea,b,c,*; Luo, Jiawena,c,d,e,*; Chen, Songjiana,*; Lin, Qiwenb; Kuang, Changyib; Rao, Yuyangb; Zhang, Xuebiaob; Huang, Yanpinga,c; Ma, Lijunb; Lin, Jiabaob,f Author Information aSchool of Civil and Transportation Engineering, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China bDepartment of Psychology, School of Public Health and Management, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, Guangzhou, China cMental Health Education and Counseling Center, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China dSchool of Management, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China eNew Engineering Education Research Center, Guangdong University of Technology, Guangzhou, China fInstitut des Sciences Cognitives Marc Jeannerod, CNRS UMR 5229, Université Claude Bernard Lyon 1, Lyon, France Received 16 October 2022 Accepted 21 November 2022. *Yajue Chen, Jiawen Luo, and Songjian Chen contributed equally to this work and share first authorship. Correspondence to Jiabao Lin, Department of Psychology, School of Public Health and Management, Guangzhou University of Chinese Medicine, No. 232, Huandong Road, University Town, Guangzhou 510006, China, Tel/fax: +86 156 2640 4174; e-mail: [email protected] NeuroReport 34(2):p 93-101, February 1, 2023. | DOI: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000001864 Buy Metrics Abstract Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) frequently occurs accompanied by attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), which catches increasing attention. The comorbid diagnosis of ASD with ADHD (ASD + ADHD) is permitted in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-V). However, compared to autism spectrum disorder without other symptoms (ASD-only), the special neural underpinnings in ASD+ADHD remain unclear. Therefore, this study aimed to uncover the differences in cortical complexity between ASD + ADHD and ASD-only patients. A total of 114 ASD participants (i.e. containing 40 ASD + ADHD and 74 ASD-only participants) with T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were collected from the Autism Brain Imaging Data Exchange II. Afterward, a surface-based morphometry method was carried out to compare the cortical complexity (i.e. gyrification index, fractal dimension, and sulcal depth) between the ASD + ADHD and ASD-only cohorts. Results showed the increased fractal dimension in the right fusiform gyrus of the ASD + ADHD cohort in comparison to the ASD-only cohort. Moreover, the ASD + ADHD cohort exhibited increased sulcal depth in the left middle temporal gyrus/inferior temporal gyrus and right middle temporal gyrus compared to the ASD-only cohort. Last but not least, the increased gyrification index in the insula/postcentral gyrus was observed in the ASD + ADHD cohort in comparison to the ASD-only cohort. Overall, the present study contributes to the delineation of particular structural abnormalities in ASD + ADHD than ASD-only, enriching the evidence of the combined phenotype of ASD + ADHD. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.