Integrative SystemsBrief mindfulness training increased glutamate metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortexTang, Yi-Yuana; Askari, Pegahb; Choi, ChanghobAuthor Information aDepartment of Psychological Sciences, Texas Tech University, Lubbock bAdvanced Imaging Research Center, University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA Received 22 July 2020 Accepted 18 August 2020 Correspondence to Yi-Yuan Tang, PhD, Department of Psychological Sciences, Texas Tech University, 2700 18th Street Lubbock, TX 79409, Tel: +1 806 834 8688; fax: +1 806 742 0818; e-mail: email@example.com NeuroReport: November 4, 2020 - Volume 31 - Issue 16 - p 1142-1145 doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000001527 Buy Metrics Abstract Mindfulness meditation has become a promising intervention for promoting health and well-being. Neuroimaging studies have shown its beneficial effects on brain functional activity, connectivity, and structures following months to years of practice. A series of randomized controlled trials indicated that one form of mindfulness meditation, the integrative body-mind training (IBMT) induces brain functional and structural changes in brain regions related to self-control networks such as the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) after 2–10 h of practice. However, whether IBMT could change brain metabolism in the ACC remains unexplored. Utilizing a noninvasive 3T proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy, our results showed a significant increase in glutamate metabolism in the rostral ACC following 10 h of IBMT, suggesting that brief training not only increases ACC activity and structure, but also induces neurochemical changes in regions of the self-control networks. To our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating the positive effects on brain metabolism in the ACC following brief intervention, suggesting a potential mechanism and implications of mindfulness meditation in ameliorating disorders such as addiction, depression and schizophrenia, which often involve the dysfunction of self-control networks and glutamatergic system (i.e. lower glutamate metabolism). Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.