Gustatory dysfunctions are more frequent than other chemosensory dysfunctions in aging people. Gustatory event-related potentials (ERPs) has been suggested as a reliable and effective approach for assessing gustatory functions in young and middle subjects, but has rarely been investigated in aging people, leaving influencing factors of ERPs in that population not completely understood. In this study, we analyzed gustatory ERPs results of aging participants and characterized potential impacting factors, including age, sex, BMI, drinking, smoking, hypertension, diabetes, cognition and psychophysical test scores of gustation and olfaction. Our results revealed three components (P1, N1 and P2) in gustatory ERPs upon salty stimulation. Significant differences between responses collected from different recording electrodes were observed: minimum latencies and maximum amplitudes of P1 were detected at frontal electrode, and maximum amplitudes of N1 and P2 were detected at central and centro-parietal electrodes, respectively. Major cortical sources of components P1, N1 and P2 were located at bilateral insula, frontal operculum, and orbitofrontal cortex. Diabetes was positively associated with latencies of P1. Sex was positively associated with amplitudes of P1, N1 and P2. Hypertension was negatively associated with amplitudes of P1 and P2. In conclusion, gustatory ERPs in aging people exhibited a specific topographical distribution, represented by sex-related differences and negative impacts of diabetes and hypertension.