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Transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked potentials after the stimulation of the right-hemispheric homologue of Broca’s area

Salo, Karita S.-T.a,,b; Vaalto, Selja M.I.a,,b,,c; Lioumis, Pantelisa,,b; Ilmoniemi, Risto J.a,,b

doi: 10.1097/WNR.0000000000001337
Integrative Systems

The combination of transcranial magnetic stimulation and electroencephalography can be applied to probe effective connectivity. Neurons are excited by magnetic pulses, which produce transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked potentials that can be monitored with electroencephalography. Effective connectivity refers to causal connections in the brain; it describes how different brain areas communicate with each other. Broca’s area is crucial for all phases of speech processing and is located in the frontotemporal region of the cortex. Only a few studies have investigated this region using transcranial magnetic stimulationelectroencephalography because of the large cranial muscles that are located over these areas, resulting in large artifacts covering the transcranial magnetic stimulation-evoked potentials. However, it is shown that this obstacle can be overcome with new artifact-removal tools. We used minimum-norm estimation to locate the sources of the neuronal signals in electroencephalography data after stimulating the right-hemispheric homologue of Broca’s area in three right-handed subjects; it was shown that the spreading of brain activity might be different for different individuals and that the brain activity spread fast to the contralateral hemisphere.

aDepartment of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University School of Science, Espoo

bBioMag Laboratory

cDepartment of Clinical Neurophysiology, HUS Medical Imaging Center, Helsinki University Hospital and University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland

Received 7 August 2019 Accepted 16 August 2019

Correspondence to Karita S.-T. Salo, Department of Neuroscience and Biomedical Engineering, Aalto University School of Science, P.O. Box 12200, FI-00076 AALTO, Finland, Tel: +358408238025; e-mail:

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