In the present study, we used a gas chromatography–mass spectrometry-based metabolomics method to evaluate the effects of ketamine on mice hippocampi. Multivariate statistical analysis and ingenuity pathway analysis were then used to identify and explore the potential mechanisms and biofunction of ketamine. Compared with the control (CON) group, 14 differential metabolites that involved amino acid metabolism, energy metabolism, and oxidative stress metabolism were identified. After combination with 2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-sulfamoyl-benzo[f]quinoxaline-2,3-dione (NBQX) administration, six of the 14 metabolites remained significantly differentially expressed between the ketamine (KET) and KET+NBQX groups, including glycine, alanine, glutamine, aspartic acid, myoinositol, and ascorbate, whereas no difference was found in the levels of the other eight metabolites between the KET and KET+NBQX groups, including phosphate, 4-aminobutyric acid, urea, creatine, L-malic acid, galactinol, inosine, and aminomalonic. Our findings indicate that ketamine exerts antidepressant effects through an α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid inhibition-dependent mechanism and a mechanism not affected by α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid inhibition. Which provides further insight into the therapeutic mechanisms of ketamine in the hippocampus.