CELLULAR, MOLECULAR AND DEVELOPMENTAL NEUROSCIENCEThree-dimensional bioprinting of rat embryonic neural cellsLee, Wonhyea b; Pinckney, Jasona; Lee, Vivianb; Lee, Jong-Hwana; Fischer, Krisztinaa; Polio, Samuela; Park, Je-Kyunb; Yoo, Seung-Schika bAuthor Information aDepartment of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts, USA bDepartment of Bio and Brain Engineering, College of Life Science and Bioengineering, KAIST, Daejeon, Republic of Korea Correspondence to Dr Seung-Schik Yoo, PhD, MBA, Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA Tel: +1 617 525 3308; e-mail: [email protected] Received 8 January 2009 accepted 11 March 2009 NeuroReport: May 27th, 2009 - Volume 20 - Issue 8 - p 798-803 doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e32832b8be4 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract We present a direct cell printing technique to pattern neural cells in a three-dimensional (3D) multilayered collagen gel. A layer of collagen precursor was printed to provide a scaffold for the cells, and the rat embryonic neurons and astrocytes were subsequently printed on the layer. A solution of sodium bicarbonate was applied to the cell containing collagen layer as nebulized aerosols, which allowed the gelation of the collagen. This process was repeated layer-by-layer to construct the 3D cell–hydrogel composites. Upon characterizing the relationship between printing resolutions and the growth of printed neural cells, single/multiple layers of neural cell–hydrogel composites were constructed and cultured. The on-demand capability to print neural cells in a multilayered hydrogel scaffold offers flexibility in generating artificial 3D neural tissue composites. © 2009 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.