BRAIN IMAGINGMapping cerebellar degeneration in HIV/AIDSKlunder, Andrea D.a; Chiang, Ming-Changa; Dutton, Rebecca A.a; Lee, Sharon E.a; Toga, Arthur W.a; Lopez, Oscar L.b; Aizenstein, Howard J.c; Becker, James T.b c d; Thompson, Paul M.a Author Information aLaboratory of Neuro Imaging, Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, California Departments of bNeurology, cPsychiatry dPsychology, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, USA Correspondence to Dr Paul Thompson, Laboratory of Neuro Imaging, Department of Neurology, UCLA School of Medicine, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7332, USA Tel: +1 310 206 2101; fax: +1 310 206 5518; e-mail: [email protected] Received 23 June 2008; accepted 10 July 2008 NeuroReport: November 19, 2008 - Volume 19 - Issue 17 - p 1655-1659 doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e328311d374 Buy Metrics Abstract Progressive brain atrophy in HIV/AIDS is associated with impaired psychomotor performance, perhaps partly reflecting cerebellar degeneration; yet little is known about how HIV/AIDS affects the cerebellum. We visualized the three-dimensional profile of atrophy in 19 HIV-positive patients (age: 42.9±8.3 years) versus 15 healthy controls (age: 38.5±12.0 years). We localized consistent patterns of subregional atrophy with an image analysis method that automatically deforms each patient's scan, in three dimensions, to match a reference image. Atrophy was greatest in the posterior cerebellar vermis (14.9% deficit) and correlated with depression severity (P=0.009, corrected), but not with dementia, alcohol/substance abuse, CD4+T-cell counts, or viral load. Profound cerebellar deficits in HIV/AIDS (P=0.007, corrected) were associated with depression, suggesting a surrogate disease marker for antiretroviral trials. © 2008 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.