VISION, CENTRALSubliminal words durably affect neuronal activityGaillard, Raphaëla b; Cohen, Laurenta b; Adam, Claudea; Clemenceau, Stéphanea; Hasboun, Dominiquea; Baulac, Michela; Willer, Jean-Claudea; Dehaene, Stanislasb; Naccache, Lionela bAuthor Information aAP-HP, Pitié-Salpêtrière Hospital & University Pierre et Marie Curie, Paris bINSERM, U562 Cognitive Neuroimaging Unit, Orsay, France Correspondence to Dr Lionel Naccache, MD, PhD, Assistance Publique Hôpitaux de Paris and INSERM, 47-83 Bd Hôpital, Paris, France Tel: +33 1 40 77 97 99; fax: +33 1 40 77 97 89; e-mail: email@example.com Received 16 July 2007; accepted 26 July 2007 NeuroReport: October 8th, 2007 - Volume 18 - Issue 15 - p 1527-1531 doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282f0b6cd Buy Metrics Abstract Unconscious mental representations elicited by subliminal stimuli are marked by their fleeting lifetimes, usually below 1 s. Can such evanescent subliminal stimuli, nevertheless, lead to long-lasting learning? To date, evidence suggesting a long-term influence of briefly perceived stimuli on behaviour or brain activity is scarce and questionable. In this study, we used intracranial recordings to provide the first direct demonstration that unconsciously perceived subliminal words could exert long-lasting effects on neuronal signals. When repeating subliminal words over long interstimulus intervals, we observed electrophysiological repetition effects. These unconscious repetition effects suggest that the single presentation of a masked word can durably affect neural architecture. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.