BEHAVIOURFunctional neuroanatomy of speech processing within the temporal cortexHara, Nobuko F.a b; Nakamura, Kimihiroa; Kuroki, Chihirob c; Takayama, Yoshihiroa; Ogawa, SeijibAuthor Information aDepartment of Speech Physiology, Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tokyo bOgawa Laboratories for Brain Function Research, Hamano Life Science Research Foundation, Tokyo cDepartment of Brain and Nerve Science, Oita University School of Medicine, Oita, Japan Correspondence to Ms Nobuko F. Hara, Ogawa Laboratories for Brain Function Research, Hamano Life Science Research Foundation, 12 Daikyo-cho, Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo, Japan Tel: +81 80 1035 2198; fax: +81 3 5800 3251; e-mail: email@example.com Received 1 July 2007; accepted 13 July 2007 NeuroReport: October 8th, 2007 - Volume 18 - Issue 15 - p 1603-1607 doi: 10.1097/WNR.0b013e3282f03f39 Buy Metrics Abstract The phonemic structure of the maternal language determines the way of perceiving speech signals. A typical example is that native Japanese listeners map two English phonemes, /r/ and /l/, onto the same /R/. This perceptual assimilation of speech sounds has been associated with the left and/or right posterior perisylvian region, but the precise functional anatomy is unknown. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging and a repetition priming paradigm, we identified three subregions in the left temporal cortex: an anterior division sensitive to language-specific phonological knowledge, and a midlateral and a posterior division related to other vocal stimuli features. Dynamic causal modeling supports the scheme by which the anterior pathway processes perceptual assimilation; the posterior pathway processes lexico-semantic information. © 2007 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.