BRAIN IMAGINGAnticipation of emotionally aversive visual stimuli activates right insulaSimmons, Alan1 3 CA; Matthews, Scott C.3; Stein, Murray B.2 3; Paulus, Martin P.1 3Author Information 1Laboratory of Biological Dynamics and Theoretical Medicine 2Anxiety & Traumatic Stress Disorders Program 3Department of Psychiatry (Mail Code 0603), University of California, San Diego, 9500 Gilman Drive, La Jolla, CA 92093-0985, USA CA,3Corresponding Author and Address: email@example.com Received 1 June 2004; accepted 21 July 2004 NeuroReport: October 5th, 2004 - Volume 15 - Issue 14 - p 2261-2265 Buy Abstract Understanding the neural substrates of anticipation is required for a comprehensive model of the ways in which anxiety influences information processing. While it is apparent that the insula and medial frontal cortex are involved in processing anticipation of physical (i.e., painful) stimuli, their role in processing anticipation of aversive affective stimuli has yet to be determined. Twenty-eight healthy non-phobic volunteers observed aversive affective images (spiders and snakes) that were preceded by an auditory signal. The insula, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, and parahippocampal gyrus activated during anticipation of aversive affective images. These findings indicate that common neural circuitry is involved in the anticipation of (and, perhaps, the subjective experience of anticipating) aversive affective and noxious physical stimuli. © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.