CLINICAL NEUROSCIENCE AND NEUROPATHOLOGYBrain–computer interface using fMRI: spatial navigation by thoughtsYoo, Seung-Schik1 2 CA; Fairneny, Ty3; Chen, Nan-Kuei1; Choo, Seh-Eun4; Panych, Lawrence P.1; Park, HyunWook5; Lee, Soo-Young2; Jolesz, Ferenc A.1Author Information 1Department of Radiology, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, 75 Francis St Boston, MA 02115, USA 2Department of BioSystems 5Department of Electrical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon, Korea 3Department of Biomedical Engineering 4College of Communication, Boston University, Boston, MA, USA CA,1Corresponding Author and Address: firstname.lastname@example.org Received 8 April 2004; accepted 28 April 2004 NeuroReport: July 19th, 2004 - Volume 15 - Issue 10 - p 1591-1595 doi: 10.1097/01.wnr.0000133296.39160.fe Buy SDC Metrics Abstract A brain–computer interface (BCI) is a way of conveying an individual's thoughts to control computer or electromechanical hardware. Capitalizing on the ability to characterize brain activity in a reproducible manner, we explored the possibility of using real-time fMRI to interpret the spatial distribution of brain function as BCI commands. Using a high-field (3 T) MRI scanner, brain activities associated with four distinct covert functional tasks were detected and subsequently translated into predetermined computer commands for moving four directional cursors. The proposed fMRI-BCI method allowed volunteer subjects to navigate through a simple 2D maze solely through their thought processes. © 2004 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.