VISION, CENTRALHypoxia: modulation of endothelial cell proliferation by soluble factors released by retinal cellsEichler, Wofram1, CA; Yafai, Yousef1,2; Kuhrt, Heidrun2; Gräter, Ruth1; Hoffmann, Stephan1; Wiedemann, Peter1; Reichenbach, Andreas2Author Information 1Eye Hospital, University of Leipzig, D-04103 Leipzig, Liebigstrasse 10-14, D-04103 Leipzig; 2Paul Flechsig Institute for Brain Research, Department of Neurophysiology, University of Leipzig, D-04109 Leipzig, Jahnallee 59, Leipzig, Germany CACorresponding Author Received 28 September 2001; accepted 24 October 2001 Neuroreport: December 21st, 2001 - Volume 12 - Issue 18 - p 4103-4108 Buy SDC Abstract A devastating complication of ischemic retinopathies is retinal neovascularization. We studied the impact on retinal endothelial cell proliferation of soluble factors released from cultured retinal glial (Müller) cells and from retinal explant cultures. Hypoxia strongly stimulated VEGF release by all types of cultures but endothelial cell growth was not further increased by the corresponding conditioned media if compared to supernatants obtained under normoxia. When the final concentration of the hypoxia-conditioned media was adjusted to the VEGF level of normoxia-conditioned media, they even inhibited endothelial cell proliferation. Inhibition may be exerted by TGF-β2 but TGF-β2 mRNA and protein expression in Müller cells were found to be down-regulated under hypoxia. We conclude that retinal endothelial cell proliferation is controlled by the balance of the amount and/or efficacy of several stimulatory and inhibitory factors. © 2001 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.