Research PapersFunctional magnetic resonance imaging in macaque cortexDubowitz, David J; Chen, Dar-Yeong1; Atkinson, Dennis J.2; Grieve, Kenneth L.3; Gillikin, Betty; Bradley, William G. Jr1; Andersen, Richard A.4Author Information Division of Biology, 216-76, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125, USA (Dubowitz) (Gillikin) (Andersen) 1Long Beach MRI Center, Long Beach Memorial Medical Center, Long Beach, CA 90806, USA 2Siemens Medical Systems R&D, Iselin NJ 08830, USA 3Department of Optometry and Vision Sciences, University of Manchester Institute of Science and Technology, Manchester, UK 4Corresponding Author ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: We thank Chris Headrick for the illustrations, Antigona Martinez for assistance with functional image analysis, Yale Cohen and Boris Breznen for helpful discussion, Rick Paniagua for workshop and technical assistance, Sohaib Kureshi for surgical assistance. This research was supported by the National Eye Institute (R.A.A.) and the Pasadena Neurosciences Fellowship of Huntington Medical Research Institutes (D.J.D.). Received 3 April 1998; accepted 26 April 1998 NeuroReport: July 13th, 1998 - Volume 9 - Issue 10 - p 2213-2218 Buy Abstract THE ability to use fMRI in a monkey model would bridge the gap between the fMRI demonstration of cerebral activation in humans and the cumulative wealth of monkey data on the functional organization of the brain from single electrode mapping, radioisotope and histology studies. We report a new technique for fMRI in an awake co-operative rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta) in a conventional clinical 1.5T MR scanner and present the first fMRI images from a macaque. Good resolution, signal-to-noise ratio and BOLD response (2.6–4.6%) have been achieved using the manufacturer's standard volume knee coil. T1 values of macaque gray and white matter (1490 ms, 1010 ms respectively) are higher than human brain, whereas T2 values are lower (55 ms, 48 ms respectively). An MR-compatible design for restraining the monkey is also described, along with a suitable EPI sequence for BOLD images, optimized for monkey T2, with voxel sizes from 29 to 61 μl, and MPRAGE sequence for anatomical studies with 0.8 mm isotropic resolution, optimized for monkey T1. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.