Brain ImagingImaging brain activation induced by long trains of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulationSiebner, Hartwig Roman1,3; Willoch, Frode2; Peller, Martin1; Auer, Carola1; Boecker, Henning1; Conrad, Bastian1; Bartenstein, Peter2Author Information 1Departments of Neurology, Technische Universität München, Moehlstrasse 28, 81675 Munich, Germany 2Departments of Nuclear Medicine, Technische Universität München, Moehlstrasse 28, 81675 Munich, Germany 3Corresponding Author: Hartwig Roman Siebner ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS: The authors would like to thank Mr H. Riescher for his technical assistance, Mrs S. Fürst and Mrs C. Kolligs for their assistance during PET acquisition, and Ms N. Nguyen for careful review of the manuscript. This study was supported in part by a grant from the Wilhelm Sander Stiftung (München, Germany). Received 11 December 1997; accepted 18 January 1998 NeuroReport: March 30th, 1998 - Volume 9 - Issue 5 - p 943-948 Buy Abstract USING Positron emission tomography (PET), we measured the relative changes in regional cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (rCMRglc) during 2Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left sensorimotor cortex (SM1) and during imitation of rTMS-induced arm movements. Such stimulation caused an rCMRglc increase of about 8% within the SM1. The relative rCMRglc increase within SM1 was significantly greater in magnitude and larger in area during voluntary imitation of rTMS-induced arm movements. Moreover, the rostral part of the SMA was significantly more activated by voluntary movements than during rTMS. Combining rTMS and PET has the potential to visualize rTMS-related net brain activation, and may open up new possibilities for functional network analysis by comparing willed brain activation with electromagnetic brain activation. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.