NeuroimmunologyGM-CSF affects hypothalamic neurotransmitter levels in mice: involvement of interleukin-1Bianchi, Mauro1,2; Clavenna, Antonio1; Bondiolotti, Gian Pietro1; Ferrario, Paolo1; Panerai, Alberto E.1Author Information 1Department of Pharmacology, University of Milano, Via Vanvitelli 32, 20129 Milano, Italy 2Corresponding Author: Mauro Bianchi Received 6 August 1997; accepted 7 September 1977 NeuroReport: November 10th, 1997 - Volume 8 - Issue 16 - p 3587-3590 Buy Abstract WE studied the effects of granulocyte-macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) on the brain levels of several neurotransmitters in mice. Administration of GM-CSF (5.0 and 10 μg, i.p.) significantly reduced the hypothalamic levels of glutamine, glutamic acid, GABA and aspartic acid. GM-CSF (5.0 μg, i.p.) also induced a significant reduction of norepinephrine and serotonin levels in the hypothalamus, without affecting dopamine levels. The hippocampal levels of neurotransmitters were not modified by GM-CSF administration. The peripheral administration of a specific interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, 50 μg, i.p.) blocked the effects of GM-CSF. These results confirm our previous behavioural data suggesting that GM-CSF is able to exert neuromodulatory actions. © Lippincott-Raven Publishers.