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Underrepresentation of Racial Diversity in Simulation

An International Study

Nursing Education Perspectives: May/June 2020 - Volume 41 - Issue 3 - p E12-E13
doi: 10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000664
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The authors and planners have disclosed that they have no financial relationships related to this article.

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GENERAL PURPOSE: To present the details of a quantitative, descriptive study conducted to examine the presence of racial diversity in simulation centers globally.

LEARNING OBJECTIVES/OUTCOMES: After completing this continuing education activity, you should be able to:

1. Outline the findings from the authors’ review of the literature and the goals of this study of racial diversity in simulation centers globally.

2. Analyze the results of the authors’ study and implications for practice.

  1. The National League for Nursing emphasizes that current data demonstrate an underrepresentation of racially diverse nurses in the workforce, racism, health disparities, and
    1. scant diversity and inclusivity studies in simulation pedagogy.
    2. lack of representation of the geographic environment.
    3. decreasing graduation rates for black students.
  2. The Institute of Medicine's Future of Nursing report focuses on diversity and calls for the development and use of new educational models that promote respect for race, ethnicity, geography, background, and
    1. spiritual practices.
    2. personal experience.
    3. universal collegiality.
  3. In an integrative review of the literature, Foronda and colleagues identified that which of the following is lacking in simulation pedagogy?
    1. cultural humility
    2. cultural awareness
    3. cultural congruence
  4. According to Hayden and colleagues, individuals who identified as minorities in a national study demonstrated the highest rate of
    1. attrition.
    2. proficiency
    3. engagement.
  5. Foronda and colleagues reported that 94% of manikins and body parts displayed at an international conference were
    1. black.
    2. white.
    3. brown.
  6. Fuselier and colleagues and others found that minority students have reported that the presence of minority faculty and manikins of color in simulation laboratories has led to feelings of
    1. discomfort.
    2. identification.
    3. inclusiveness.
  7. For their study, the authors conducted peer debriefing and a negative case analysis to establish
    1. credibility.
    2. transferability.
    3. confirmability.
  8. The researchers who conducted the qualitative analysis attended to reflexivity by announcing and carefully recognizing their perspectives and potential biases to establish
    1. credibility.
    2. transferability.
    3. confirmability.
  9. The results of the authors’ study indicated that the most common work position role among the participants was
    1. faculty member.
    2. simulation educator/instructor/facilitator.
    3. simulation support or technical staff member.
  10. The greatest number of participants indicated that their simulation center had
    1. standardized patients of color.
    2. simulation facilitators of color.
    3. body parts/task trainers of color.
  11. In response to the percentage of standardized patients of color, how many participants indicated none to 20 percent or less?
    1. one half
    2. two thirds
    3. three quarters
  12. When asked if their simulation center had signage or pictures that represented racial diversity, more than half of the participants indicated that they
    1. did.
    2. did not.
    3. did not know.
  13. When asked if their simulation center demonstrated an inclusive environment for those who identify as “of color” or “black,” 69.38% of the participants responded that
    1. it does.
    2. it does not.
    3. they don’t know.
  14. How many of the participants believed that their simulation center represented the racial diversity of the regional population where they worked?
    1. nearly one quarter
    2. about one third
    3. more than half
  15. Several comments indicated the lack of which of the following in the manikins of color currently offered?
    1. gender
    2. realism
    3. functionality
  16. Several participants advocated for increased representation of patients of which of the following races/ethnicities?
    1. Asian
    2. Hispanic
    3. Native American
  17. To minimize the problems of a lack of diversity, one participant suggested making all the manikins
    1. gender-neutral.
    2. brown.
    3. green.
  18. Cross and colleagues described six stages of moving toward cultural proficiency, with advocating for treating everyone the same aligning with which of the following stages?
    1. cultural blindness
    2. cultural incapacity
    3. cultural destructiveness
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