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Development and Validation of an Instrument to Measure Transformation From Study Abroad

Foronda, Cynthia; Phitwong, Ame

doi: 10.1097/01.NEP.0000000000000554

Study abroad has the potential to lead to perspective transformation, the highest level of learning. Instruments are lacking to quantitatively measure the effectiveness of the study abroad experience in terms of student learning outcomes. Obtaining such data could be used to better evaluate teaching methods. Informed by qualitative research, an instrument was developed to measure transformation from study abroad. The scale content validity index was 0.82, demonstrating strong validity. Although further testing is needed, this instrument presents a way to examine the impact of study abroad so that learners may be better prepared to attend to the global community.

About the Authors Cynthia Foronda, PhD, RN, CNE, CHSE, ANEF, is an associate professor of clinical, University of Miami School of Nursing and Health Studies, Coral Gables, Florida. Ame Phitwong, DNP, ARNP, AGPCNP-BC, is a dermatology nurse practitioner, Seattle, Washington. For more information, contact Dr. Foronda at

The activities reported here were supported (in part) by the Josiah Macy Jr. Foundation.

The authors have declared no conflict of interest.

Supplemental digital content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal’s website (

Online date: July 19, 2019

© 2019 Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Inc.
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