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Simulation as a Nursing Education Disrupter

Waxman, KT DNP, MBA, RN, CNL, CENP, CHSE, FSSH, FAAN; Bowler, Fara DNP, ANP-C, CHSE; Forneris, Susan Gross PhD, RN, CNE, CHSE-A; Kardong-Edgren, Suzie PhD, RN, ANEF, CHSE, FSSH, FAAN; Rizzolo, Mary Anne EdD, RN, FAAN, ANEF, FSSH

doi: 10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000369
Original Articles

Simulation as an evidence-based pedagogy began emerging at a time when many constraints were being imposed on clinical experiences for nursing students. As research illuminated the advantages of simulation and standards were developed, educators began to recognize the limitations of the clinical setting, such as the inability to provide experiences in teamwork and delegation, and a focus on tasks. Simulations are crafted to provide an experience that matches content that is being taught in class, and debriefing techniques guide learners in a reflective process that promotes the development of clinical reasoning and judgment. The National Council of State Boards of Nursing study concluded that simulation could be substituted for 50% of clinical hours. Simulation-exposed gaps in the curriculum and its pedagogical principles are now extending to adaptations of its use in the classroom and in clinical postconferences. They are also shaping teacher-student conversations in the office and the hallways. Use of simulation for assessment is beginning to evolve. In a little more than 10 years, it has started a revolution that will continue to have a major impact on all aspects of nursing education in the future.

School of Nursing and Health Professions, University of San Francisco, California (Dr Waxman); College of Nursing, University of Colorado Denver, Aurora (Dr Bowler); National League for Nursing, Washington, District of Columbia (Drs Forneris and Rizzolo); and Adjunct Faculty, Center for Medical Simulation, Boston, Massachusetts (Dr Kardong-Edgren).

Correspondence: KT Waxman, DNP, MBA, RN, CNL, CENP, CHSE, FSSH, FAAN, School of Nursing and Health Professions, University of San Francisco, 2130 Fulton St, San Francisco, CA 94117 (

The authors declare no conflicts of interest.

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