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Disruptive Engagements With Technologies, Robotics, and Caring

Advancing the Transactive Relationship Theory of Nursing

Tanioka, Tetsuya PhD, FAAN, RN; Yasuhara, Yuko PhD, RN; Dino, Michael Joseph S. PhD, RN; Kai, Yoshihiro Dr Eng; Locsin, Rozzano C. PhD, FAAN, RN; Schoenhofer, Savina O. PhD, RN

doi: 10.1097/NAQ.0000000000000365
Original Articles

Human caring, founded on a Japanese caring perspective and nursing theory, fosters innovative and creative ideas for an aging society. The growing reality of health care dependency on technology presents a temptation to give robots utility as partners in nursing practice. Human caring expressed in human-to-human relationships, and also between humans and nonhumans, is a futuristic model for health care, with humanoid robots as major supporters. The purpose of this article is to explore this disruptive technology, along with its functions and characteristics. Tanioka's Transactive Relationship Theory of Nursing is shared along with its relevance for addressing technological disruptions in health care.

Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University, Graduate School, Tokushima, Japan (Drs Tanioka, Locsin, and Yasuhara); Research Development & Innovation Center, Our Lady of Fatima University, Manila, Philippines (Dr Dino); Department of Mechanical Engineering, Tokai University, Kanagawa, Japan (Dr Kai); and Nursing Consultant (Dr Schoenhofer).

Correspondence: Tetsuya Tanioka, PhD, FAAN, RN, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, Tokushima University, Graduate School, 18-15 Kuramoto-cho 3, Tokushima, Japan (

This work was supported in part by JSPS KAKENHI grant number JP17H01609, Japan.

There is no actual or potential conflict of interest that exists in this manuscript.

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