The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between type 2 diabetes mellitus and sleep-related symptoms among midlife women from four major racial/ethnic groups in the United States.
The data from 164 participants of two larger Internet survey studies (62 women diagnosed with type 2 diabetes and 102 women without diabetes) were included. In the original studies, multiple instruments including the questions on background characteristics, health status, and menopause status and the Sleep Index for Midlife Women were used. The data were analyzed using χ2 tests, independent t tests, Mann–Whitney U tests, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses.
The mean total number of sleep-related symptoms was significantly higher in those with type 2 diabetes (9.95 ± 5.83) than those without diabetes (7.25 ± 6.08) (t = 2.81, P = 0.006). The mean total severity score of sleep-related symptoms was also significantly higher in those with type 2 diabetes (33.42 ± 22.41) than those without diabetes (21.87 ± 21.40) (t = 3.29, P = 0.001). Among postmenopausal women and Asian women, there were significant differences in total numbers and total severity scores between those with type 2 diabetes and those without diabetes (all P < 0.05). When background characteristics, health status, and menopause status were controlled, having a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes was positively associated with total numbers (β=0.143, P = 0.047) and total severity scores (β=0.176, P = 0.014) of sleep-related symptoms.
This secondary analysis supported significant associations of type 2 diabetes to sleep-related symptoms of midlife women from four major racial/ethnic groups in the United States.
1School of Nursing, Duke University, Durham, NC
2School of Nursing, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA.
Address correspondence to: Eun-Ok Im, PhD, MPH, FAAN, School of Nursing, Duke University, 307 Trent Dr. Durham, NC 27710. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Received 29 March, 2019
Revised 20 May, 2019
Accepted 20 May, 2019
Funding/support: This is a secondary analysis of the quantitative data from two lager studies that were funded by the National Institutes of Health (NIH/NINR/NIA, R01NR008926, and NIH/NINR/NHLBI, R01NR010568).
Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.
Online date: August 12, 2019