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Confirmatory factor analysis of the Menopausal Interpretations/Perceptions Questionnaire

Chou, Hsueh-Fen PhD, RN1; Schneider, Joanne Kraenzle PhD, RN2

doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000215
Original Articles

Objective This study aims to develop the Menopausal Interpretations/Perceptions Questionnaire (MIPQ) using confirmatory factor analysis.

Methods A descriptive cross-sectional design was used to examine the MIPQ. We recruited 228 women through mail-outs and word of mouth. The women were aged between 45 and 64 years (mean [SD], 55.6 [5.2] y) and were able to read and write English. Most were non-Hispanic white (63.4%), college-educated (74.2%), and postmenopausal (76.8%). We modified the Revised Illness Perception Questionnaire to reflect menopausal perception by substituting the word “menopause” or “menopausal symptoms” for the word “illness” to develop the MIPQ.

Results Using confirmatory factor analysis to test the MIPQ model, we deleted 22 items that did not reflect their respective subscales (latent variable). The fit indices indicated acceptable fit (χ 2 209 = 425.5; P = 0.000; goodness of fit = 0.96; comparative fit index = 0.93; root mean square error of approximation = 0.07; 90% CI, 0.06-0.08; Akaike information criterion = 559.5). There were significant correlations among the MIPQ constructs. Correlations between the MIPQ subscales and the Greene Climacteric Scale were significant and in the expected direction, supporting construct validity. The intercorrelations between the MIPQ subscales supported the discriminant validity of the constructs.

Conclusions The MIPQ provides a comprehensive measure of menopausal experience to more fully understand women’s interpretations/perceptions of their experiences. Future researchers should further examine the construct validity of the MIPQ.

From the 1Chang Gung University School of Nursing Medical School, Kwei-Shan Tao-Yuan, Taiwan; and 2Saint Louis University School of Nursing, St Louis, MO.

Received October 29, 2013; revised and accepted January 6, 2014.

Funding/support: This study was supported by the Delta Lambda Chapter of Sigma Theta Tau.

Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.

Address correspondence to: Hsueh-Fen Chou, PhD, RN, Chang Gung University School of Nursing Medical School, 259 Wen-Hwa 1st Road, Kwei-Shan Tao-Yuan 333, Taiwan. E-mail:

© 2014 by The North American Menopause Society.