To examine the associations of natural menopausal age with cardiovascular disease risk factors and whether the associations varied by parity in older Chinese women.
Information of demographic characteristics, lifestyles, and reproductive factors was collected by face-to-face interview. Framingham Risk Score was used as an indicator of cardiovascular disease risk, with a score ≥ 10% considered as high cardiovascular disease risk (vs low, dichotomous). Multivariable logistic and linear regressions were used to examine the associations of menopausal age with cardiovascular disease risk factors.
Of 18,339 women aged 50+ years, the average (standard deviation) age was 61.8 (6.9) years. Compared with women with menopausal age of 45 to 54 years, after adjustment for multiple potential confounders, women with menopausal age <45 years or ≥55 years had higher Framingham Risk Score (0.93%, 95% confidence interval: 0.40-1.46, and 0.69%, 95% confidence interval: 0.18-1.20, respectively). Women with menopausal age <45 or ≥55 years had higher odds of high cardiovascular disease risk (vs low) (odds ratio [95% confidence interval]:1.26 (1.10-1.44) and 1.17 (1.02-1.33), respectively). The associations of menopausal age with the Framingham Risk Score varied by parity (P for interaction ≤0.001). The Framingham Risk Score was higher in those with one to three parity (<45 y: 1.01 [0.43-1.59]; ≥55 y: 1.14 [0.60-1.68]) and lower for parity ≥4 (<45 y: −0.33 [−1.84 to 1.18]; ≥55 y: −2.02 [−3.82 to −0.22]). In nulliparous women, the Framingham Risk Score was highest in menopausal age <45 years (3.97 [1.67-6.26]), but the differences were nonsignificant in menopausal age ≥55 years (0.66 [−1.38 to 2.71]).
Both early and late natural menopausal ages were associated with a higher cardiovascular disease risk, and the associations were stronger in those with lower parity.