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Factors related to age at menopause among Korean women

the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women and Families

Kim, Young-taek, PhD1; Cha, Chiyoung, PhD, RN2; Lee, Mi-ran, MS, RN3

doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001268
Original Articles

Objective: The purpose of this study was to explore factors influencing age of menopause among Korean women.

Methods: For this secondary analysis study, panel data for Waves 4 through 6 of the Korean Longitudinal Survey of Women were used. Women aged 40 to 60 who were menstruating at Wave 4 were included in the analysis (N = 5,437). Sociodemographic, health status, and health behavioral factors were examined to explore their influence on menopause using Kaplan–Meier analysis and Cox regression analysis.

Results: Korean women who perceived themselves to be overweight or obese, who had depressive symptoms, or who smoked or were current smokers had higher probabilities of experiencing the onset of menopause, whereas those who had educational achievement lower than high school had a lower probability of experiencing the onset menopause.

Conclusions: Various factors influenced menopause, including sociodemographic, health status, and health behaviors. Specific tailored interventions for the management of depressive symptoms and smoking cessation could be developed to target modifying variables for Korean women, in preparation for menopause. Also, the role of perceived body weight on menopause could be further explored to identify sociocultural factors for age at menopause.

1Korean Women's Development Institute, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea

2College of Nursing & Ewha Research Institute of Nursing Science, Ewha Womans University, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea

3College of Nursing & Ewha Research Institute of Nursing Science, Ewha Womans University Seodaemun-gu, Seoul, South Korea.

Address correspondence to: Chiyoung Cha, PhD, RN, #202 Helen Hall, 52 Ewhayeodae-gil, Seodaemun-gu, Seoul 03760, South Korea. E-mail:

Received 7 June, 2018

Revised 24 September, 2018

Accepted 24 September, 2018

Funding/support: This research was supported by the Korean Women's Development Institute & the National Research Foundation of Korea (NRF) grant funded by the Korea government (Ministry of Science, ICT & Future Planning) (No. 2013R1A1A1008686).

Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.

© 2019 by The North American Menopause Society.