States of estrogen imbalance or deprivation are associated with higher risks of hypertension and cardiovascular disease in women; however, the effects of estrogen on hypertension are multifactorial, complex, and not completely understood. Although controversial, hormone therapy may improve cardiovascular outcomes when initiated by recently menopausal women. Improved screening for hypertension, especially in specific groups of younger women at higher risk, is recommended. Further study is needed to determine whether sex-specific differences exist in therapeutic response to pharmacologic management of hypertension.
1McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
2St. Michael's Hospital, Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Accepted 11 December, 2018