Effective interventions of future health care require a better understanding of the health risks associated with early onset of menopause and diabetes, but the necessary data are scarce. Little quantitative information is available about the combined association of early menopause and diabetes on life expectancy and the number of years lived with and without diabetes.
We included 3,650 postmenopausal women aged 45+ years from the Rotterdam Study, a prospective population-based cohort study. Age at menopause categories were defined as follows: early (≤44 y old), normal (45-54 y old), and late (≥55 y old). For life table calculations, we used prevalence, incidence rates, and hazard ratios for three transitions (free of diabetes to diabetes, free of diabetes to death, and diabetes to death) stratifying by age at menopause categories and adjusting for confounders.
Compared with late menopause, the difference in life expectancy for women who experienced early menopause was −3.5 (95% CI, −6.6 to −0.8) years overall and −4.6 (95% CI, −8.9 to −0.9) years without diabetes. Compared with age at normal menopause, the difference in life expectancy for women who experienced early menopause was −3.1 (95% CI, −5.1 to −1.1) years overall and −3.3 (95% CI, −6.0 to −0.6) years without diabetes.
Women who experienced early menopause lived less long and spent fewer years without diabetes than women who experienced normal or late menopause.
1Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
2Institute for Community Medicine, University Medicine Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
3Department of Internal Medicine, Section Pharmacology Vascular and Metabolic Diseases, Erasmus University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
4Department of Neurology, Erasmus University Medical Center, The Netherlands
5Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Erasmus University Medical Center, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands
6German Center for Cardiovascular Research (DZHK), Partner Site Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
7German Center for Diabetes Research, Partner Site Greifswald, Greifswald, Germany
8Institute of Social and Preventive Medicine (ISPM), University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland.
Address correspondence to: Eralda Asllanaj, MD, MSc, DSc, Department of Epidemiology, Erasmus University Medical Center, Dr. Molewaterplein 50, Office NA29-11, PO Box 2040, 3000 CA Rotterdam, The Netherlands. E-mail: email@example.com
Received 10 June, 2018
Revised 4 September, 2018
Accepted 4 September, 2018
Authors’ contribution: Study concept and design—TM and OHF; acquisition, collection, analysis, or interpretation of data—EA, AB, MG, LJ, MAF, JSEL, HV, TM, and OHF; drafting of the manuscript—EA and TM; critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content—AB, MG, LJ, MAF, JSEL, HV, TM, and OHF; statistical analyses: EA study supervision—TM, OHF. All authors approved the final version of the manuscript.
Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.
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