Receptors for estrogen and progesterone are present in the pelvic floor, and therefore, postmenopausal hormone therapy may affect its function. We compared the former use of estradiol-progestogen postmenopausal hormone therapy in nonhysterectomized women with a uterine prolapse surgery (N = 12,072) and control women (N = 33,704).
The women with a history of uterine prolapse operation were identified from the Finnish National Hospital Discharge Register, and the control women from the Finnish Central Population Register. The use of hormone therapy was traced from the national drug reimbursement register, and the odd ratios with 95% CIs for prolapse were calculated by using the conditional logistic regression analysis.
The women with uterine prolapse had used hormone therapy more often than control women (N = 4,127; 34.2% vs N = 9,189; 27.3%; P < 0.005). The use of hormone therapy was accompanied by significant (23%-53%) elevations in the risk for prolapse, being higher with longer exposure. The risk elevations (33%-23%) were comparable between sole norethisteroneacetate-estradiol and sole medroxyprogesteroneacetate-estradiol therapy. The use of estradiol in combination with a levonorgestrel releasing intrauterine device was accompanied by a 52% elevation.
The postmenopausal use of estradiol in combination with various progestogen regimens may weaken the pelvic floor, resulting in uterine prolapse. This data should be incorporated into the information given to the users of estradiol-progestogen hormone therapy.