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Balance ability and posture in postmenopausal women with chronic pelvic pain

Fuentes-Márquez, Pedro MD; Rodríguez-Torres, Janet R. MD; Valenza, Marie C. PhD; Ortíz-Rubio, Araceli PhD; Ariza-Mateos, María J. MD; Cabrera-Martos, Irene PhD

doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001086
Original Articles

Objective: The aim of the present study was to analyze balance ability and posture in postmenopausal women with chronic pelvic pain (CPP).

Methods: This study includes a sample of 48 women with CPP recruited from the Gynecology Service of Virgen de las Nieves and San Cecilio Hospitals in Granada (Spain) and 48 healthy control women matched with respect to age and anthropometric characteristics. Outcome variables collected included: balance ability (Mini-Balance Evaluation Systems Test and Timed Up an Go Test) and posture (photogrammetry and Spinal Mouse).

Results: Significant differences were found in all Mini Best Test subscales: total (P < 0.001), anticipatory (P = 0.002), reactive postural control (P < 0.001), sensory orientation (P < 0.001), and dynamic gait (P < 0.001), and all Timed Up and Go test subscales: alone (P < 0.001), with manual (P = 0.002) and cognitive task (P = 0.030). Significant differences were also found on spinal cervical angles with a forward head posture in women with CPP; global spine alignment exhibited more deviation in the women with CPP (P < 0.001); and a higher percentage of women with CPP (58%) presented with increased thoracic kyphosis and lumbar lordosis. Cohen's d was used to calculate the effect size. Some subscales of balance and posture tests showed a large effect size (d ≥0.8), indicating a more consistent result.

Conclusions: Women with CPP presented poor balance including anticipatory, reactive postural control, sensory orientation, dynamic gait, and dual task-related conditions. Posture showed higher values on the dorsal angle and lower sacral inclination, less spine alignment, and a more prevalent posture with increased kyphosis and lumbar lordosis.

Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Granada, Granada, Spain.

Address correspondence to: Marie C. Valenza, PhD, Department of Physiotherapy, Faculty of Health Sciences, University of Granada, Av. De la Ilustración, 60, 18016 Granada, Spain. E-mail:

Received 21 November, 2017

Revised 29 January, 2018

Accepted 29 January, 2018

Funding/support: JRT received financial support through a FPU grant of the Spanish Ministry of Education (FPU:16/01531).

Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.

© 2018 by The North American Menopause Society.