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Effect of 2 years of endurance and high-impact training on preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women: randomized clinical trial

García-Gomáriz, Carmen, PhD1; Blasco, José, M., PhD2,3,4; Macián-Romero, Cecili, PhD1; Guillem-Hernández, Elías, MD5; Igual-Camacho, Celedonia, PhD2,3,6

doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000001005
Original Articles

Objective: The aim of the study was to analyze the effects of endurance and high-impact training oriented toward preventing osteoporosis in postmenopausal women with calcium and vitamin D supplementation.

Methods: This study was a randomized clinical trial. Thirty-six postmenopausal women were randomized to the control and experimental groups. Thirty-four women completed the 2-year interventions. The control group training involved walking at an intense pace. The experimental group conducted high-impact training specifically oriented to prevent osteoporosis. Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry was used to estimate the T-scores of the lumbar spine and femoral neck.

Results: The fast-walking group showed constant T-scores in the femoral neck and improved T-scores in the lumbar spine. High-impact exercises produced improvements in both anatomical levels. Significant differences were found in the femoral neck (ΔControl = −0.04, ΔExperimental = 0.28). The differences were not significant in the lumbar spine (ΔControl = 0.27, ΔExperimental = 0.47). Cohen's effect size (d = 0.52) suggested a medium practical significance of the trial. The power was 51%.

Conclusions: Calcium plus vitamin D supplementation combined with specifically oriented exercises had a higher impact in the femoral neck than walking at an intense pace. As there were no differences at the lumbar spine level, the results were, however, inconclusive concerning which type of exercise was the most convenient. Importantly, the fact that the T-scores did not decrease after 2 years supports the belief that both proposed interventions can be conveniently used to prevent osteoporosis in postmenopausal women. A trial with a larger sample size would provide consistency to the findings and is warranted given the possible effects and benefits.

1Department of Nursing, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain

2Department of Physiotherapy, University of Valencia, Valencia, Spain

3Group of Physiotherapy in the Aging Process, Valencia, Spain

4Joint Research Unit LaFe-UV (IRIMED), Valencia, Spain

5Health Center of Enguera Don Rafael Romeu, Valencia, Spain

6Hospital Clínic i Universitari of Valencia, Valencia, Spain.

Address correspondence to: José M. Blasco, PhD, Department of Physiotherapy, University of Valencia, Calle Gascó Oliag no. 5, 46010 Valencia, Spain. E-mail:

Received 5 April, 2017

Revised 13 September, 2017

Accepted 13 September, 2017

Funding/support: None. identifier: NCT03091088.

Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: The authors certify that they have no affiliations with or financial involvement in any organization or entity with a direct financial interest in the subject matter or materials discussed in the article.

© 2018 by The North American Menopause Society.