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Pregnancy-induced hypertension is associated with an increase in the prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors in Japanese women

Watanabe, Kazushi MD1; Kimura, Chiharu MD1; Iwasaki, Ai MD1; Mori, Toshitaka MD1; Matsushita, Hiroshi MD1; Shinohara, Koichi MD1; Wakatsuki, Akihiko MD1; Gosho, Masahiko PhD2; Miyano, Ichiro MD3

doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000361
Original Articles

Objective This study assessed whether pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH) affects the prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in later life among Japanese women.

Methods Study participants were 1,185 women (mean [SD] age, 46.5 [5.6] y; range, 38-73 y) aged 40 years or older who underwent a health checkup at a periodic health examination facility between January 2012 and December 2013 and had experienced giving birth. Questionnaires were sent to potential participants, and they were encouraged to provide their Maternal and Child Health Handbook (handbook). We recruited 101 women with a history of PIH (PIH group) and 1,084 women with uncomplicated pregnancy at delivery (control group). Groupings were based on information from the handbook. We assessed the association between PIH and CVD in later life among Japanese women by focusing on hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemia as risk factors for CVD. Odds ratios (ORs) for the use of antihypertensive, diabetes mellitus, and dyslipidemic medications in the PIH group were determined.

Results Women with PIH had increased risk of antihypertensive medication use compared with women without PIH (2.9% vs 13.9%; OR, 4.28; 95% CI, 2.14-8.57). Triglycerides were significantly higher and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol was significantly lower in the PIH group than in the control group. The OR for dyslipidemic medication use in the PIH group relative to the control group was 3.20 (95% CI, 1.42-7.22).

Conclusions Our findings suggest that a history of PIH may be associated with an increased risk of hypertension (a risk factor for CVD) in later life among Japanese women.

From the 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Aichi, Japan; 2Unit of Biostatistics, Advanced Medical Research Center, Aichi Medical University, Aichi, Japan; and 3Department of Public Health, Kochi Medical School, Kochi, Japan.

Received June 21, 2014; revised and accepted September 3, 2014.

Funding/support: This study received foundational support from the Japan Society for the Study of Hypertension in Pregnancy.

Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.

Address correspondence to: Kazushi Watanabe, MD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Aichi Medical University School of Medicine, Nagakute City, Aichi 480-1195, Japan. E-mail:

© 2015 by The North American Menopause Society.