This study aims to determine whether vitamin D levels are associated with menopause-related symptoms in older women.
A randomly selected subset of 1,407 women, among 26,104 potentially eligible participants of the Women’s Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial of postmenopausal women aged 51 to 80 years, had 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels measured at the Women’s Health Initiative Calcium and Vitamin D trial baseline visit. Information about menopause-related symptoms at baseline was obtained by questionnaire and included overall number of symptoms and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, and energy/fatigue, as well as individual symptoms. After exclusions for missing data, 530 women (mean [SD] age, 66.2 [6.8] y) were included in these analyses.
Borderline significant associations between 25(OH)D levels and total number of menopausal symptoms were observed (with P values ranging from 0.05 to 0.06 for fully adjusted models); however, the effect was clinically insignificant and disappeared with correction for multiple testing. No associations between 25(OH)D levels and composite measures of sleep disturbance, emotional well-being, or energy/fatigue were observed (P’s > 0.10 for fully adjusted models).
There is no evidence for a clinically important association between serum 25(OH)D levels and menopause-related symptoms in postmenopausal women.
From the 1Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente Northwest, Portland, OR; 2Quantitative Sciences Unit, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; 3University of Buffalo, Buffalo, NY; 4Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA; 5Department of Epidemiology, Graduate School of Public Health, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA; 6Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics, Drexel University School of Public Health, Philadelphia, PA; 7Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA; 8University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN; 9Division of Preventive Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA; 10Department of Preventive Medicine, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, TN; 11University of Miami, Miami, FL; 12Biobehavioral Nursing, University of Washington, Seattle, WA; and 13Stanford Prevention Research Center, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Stanford, CA.
Received October 7, 2013; revised and accepted February 19, 2014.
Funding/support: The Women’s Health Initiative program was funded by the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute, National Institutes of Health, US Department of Health and Human Services through contracts HHSN268201100046C, HHSN268201100001C, HHSN268201100002C, HHSN268201100003C, HHSN268201100004C, and HHSN271201100004C.
Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: J.E.M. and colleagues at Harvard Medical School received National Institutes of Health funding for the Vitamin D and Omega-3 Trial (VITAL). The remaining authors had no conflicts of interest to disclose.
Address correspondence to: Erin S. LeBlanc, MD, MPH, Center for Health Research, Kaiser Permanente, 3800 North Interstate Avenue, Portland, OR 97227. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org