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Aging, not menopause, is associated with higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women

Krishnan, Eswar MD, MPhil1; Bennett, Mihoko PhD2; Chen, Linjun MS1

doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000230
Original Articles

Objective This work aims to study the associations, if any, of hyperuricemia, gout, and menopause status in the US population.

Methods Using multiyear data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, we performed unmatched comparisons and one to three age-matched comparisons of women aged 20 to 70 years with and without hyperuricemia (serum urate ≥6 mg/dL). Analyses were performed using survey-weighted multiple logistic regression and conditional logistic regression, respectively.

Results Overall, there were 1,477 women with hyperuricemia. Age and serum urate were significantly correlated. In unmatched analyses (n = 9,573 controls), postmenopausal women were older, were heavier, and had higher prevalence of renal impairment, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia. In multivariable regression, after accounting for age, body mass index, glomerular filtration rate, and diuretic use, menopause was associated with hyperuricemia (odds ratio, 1.36; 95% CI, 1.05-1.76; P = 0.002). In corresponding multivariable regression using age-matched data (n = 4,431 controls), the odds ratio for menopause was 0.94 (95% CI, 0.83-1.06). Current use of hormone therapy was not associated with prevalent hyperuricemia in both unmatched and matched analyses.

Conclusions Age is a better statistical explanation for the higher prevalence of hyperuricemia among older women than menopause status.

From the 1Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Palo Alto, CA; and 2Department of Pediatrics, Stanford University, Palo Alto, CA.

Received November 6, 2013; revised and accepted February 11, 2014.

Funding/support: None.

Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.

Address correspondence to: Eswar Krishnan, MD, MPhil, Department of Medicine, Stanford University School of Medicine, Suite 203, 1000 Welch Road, Palo Alto, CA 94304. E-mail:

© 2014 by The North American Menopause Society.