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Mammographic breast density in women with premature ovarian failure: a prospective analysis

Benetti-Pinto, Cristina Laguna MD, PhD1; Brancalion, Maria Fernanda MD1; Assis, Luisa H. MD1; Tinois, Eduardo MSc2; Giraldo, Helena P.D. MD1; Cabello, César MD, PhD1; Yela, Daniela A. MD, PhD1

doi: 10.1097/GME.0000000000000204
Original Articles

Objective This study aims to compare breast density between two mammograms in women with premature ovarian failure (POF).

Methods A cohort study evaluated 56 women with POF. Two mammograms performed at least 2 years apart were analyzed. Mammogram films were digitalized, and images were assessed using a computer-assisted method; the percentage of breast image that is radiologically dense is referred to as the percentage of mammographic density (PMD). Age at menarche, age at onset of POF, length of POF, length of estrogen-progestin therapy (EPT), body mass index (BMI), pregnancy, and age at the time of each mammogram were evaluated.

Results The mean (SD) age at POF diagnosis was 32.35 (5.95) years. In the first mammogram, the mean (SD) age, BMI, and length of POF were 37.58 (3.72) years, 26.79 (4.86) kg/m2, and 5.25 (4.61) years, respectively. EPT had been used for a mean (SD) of 2.71 (3.12) years. In the second mammogram, the mean (SD) age, BMI, and length of POF were 43.23 (4.98) years, 27.6 (5.39) kg/m2, and 10.5 (5.11) years, respectively. EPT had been used for a mean (SD) of 7.25 (4.6) years. The mean (SD) interval between mammograms was 5.25 (3) years, and the mean (SD) PMD decreased from 27.78% (21.04%) to 17.53% (15.71%) (P = 0.007). Comparing PMD between women taking EPT and those not taking EPT, we observed no significant differences. In both instances, multiparous women had lower PMD than nulliparous women (P < 0.05). BMI, length of POF, and pregnancy were negatively correlated with PMD.

Conclusions Breast density in young women with POF decreases across a period of 5 years, regardless of EPT use. Further studies may elucidate how this result will correlate with decision-making in clinical therapeutics and breast cancer risk in POF.

From the 1Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, School of Medical Sciences, Campinas State University, Campinas, SP, Brazil; and 2Institute of Security and Technology in Radiation, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil.

Received November 1, 2013; revised and accepted December 9, 2013.

Funding/support: This study was funded by the Foundation for Research Support of the State of São Paulo, Brazil (grant 2012/13707-2).

Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.

Address correspondence to: Cristina Laguna Benetti-Pinto, MD, PhD, Departamento de Tocoginecologia, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Rua Alexander Fleming 101, Campinas, SP 13083-970, Brazil. E-mail:

© 2014 by The North American Menopause Society.