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Resilience, depressed mood, and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women

Pérez-López, Faustino R. MD, PhD1,2; Pérez-Roncero, Gonzalo RN1; Fernández-Iñarrea, José MD3; Fernández-Alonso, Ana M. MD, PhD1,4; Chedraui, Peter MD, MSc1,5; Llaneza, Plácido MD, PhD6for The MARIA (MenopAuse RIsk Assessment) Research Group

doi: 10.1097/GME.0b013e31829479bb
Original Articles

Objective This study aims to assess resilience, depressed mood, and menopausal symptoms in postmenopausal women.

Methods In this cross-sectional study, 169 postmenopausal women aged 48 to 68 years were asked to fill out the Wagnild and Young Resilience Scale (WYRS), the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CESD-10), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), and a questionnaire containing personal and partner sociodemographic data.

Results The median [interquartile range] age of participating women was 54 [10.0] years. Among the women, 55.6% had increased body mass index, 76.9% had a partner, 17.8% were current smokers, 14.2% had hypertension, 25.4% used psychotropic drugs, and 13.0% used hormone therapy. Forty-five percent of the women had depressed mood (CESD-10 scores ≥10), and 34.9% had severe menopausal symptoms (total MRS scores ≥17). Less resilience (lower WYRS scores) correlated with depressed mood (higher CESD-10 scores) and severe menopausal symptoms (higher total, psychological, and urogenital MRS scores). Multiple linear regression analysis determined that WYRS scores positively correlated with exercising regularly and inversely correlated with CESD-10 scores (depressed mood). CESD-10 scores positively correlated with somatic and psychological MRS subscale scores and inversely correlated with WYRS scores (less resilience).

Conclusions In this postmenopausal sample, depressed mood and participation in regular exercise correlate with lower and higher resilience, respectively. Depressed mood is associated with the severity of menopausal symptoms (somatic and psychological).

From the 1Red de Investigación en Ginecología, Obstetricia y Reproducción, Zaragoza, Spain; 2Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, Spain; 3Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología, Hospital de Cabueñes, Gijón, Asturias, Spain; 4Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología, Hospital Torrecárdenas, Almería, Spain; 5Instituto de Biomedicina, Área de Investigación para la Salud de la Mujer, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Católica de Santiago de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador; and 6Departamento de Obstetricia y Ginecología, Hospital Central de Asturias, Universidad de Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain.

Received February 4, 2013; revised and accepted March 25, 2013.

Funding/support: None.

Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.

Address correspondence to: Faustino R. Pérez-López, MD, PhD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Zaragoza Hospital Clínico, Domingo Miral s/n, Zaragoza 50009, Spain. E-mail:

© 2014 by The North American Menopause Society.