Cardiovascular disease is the major cause of mortality in women worldwide. In recent years, several female-specific cardiovascular risk factors, such as hypertensive pregnancy diseases (HPDs) and vasomotor menopausal symptoms (VMS), have been identified. In this study, we evaluated the association between a history of HPD and the presence of VMS.
We consecutively included 853 women (mean age, 55.5 y) who visited the outpatient cardiovascular clinic for women in Kampen between 2003 and 2010. The visit included a questionnaire on history of HPD, demographic characteristics, and VMS; physical examination; and blood sampling. Logistic regression analysis was used to analyze the data.
A history of HPD was reported by 274 women (32%), and VMS were reported by 83% of women with a history of HPD and by 75% of women without a history of HPD. In adjusted models, VMS were more often present (odds ratio [OR], 1.62; 95% CI, 1.00-2.63) and more frequently persisted for longer than 1 year (OR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.08-3.89) among women with a history of HPD than among women with normotensive pregnancies. VMS were more often severe in women with a history of HPD, but this did not reach significance (adjusted OR, 1.28; 95% CI, 0.92-1.80). The frequency and intensity of VMS did not differ between both groups.
In our “Kampen women cardiology clinic” cohort, women with a history of HPD report VMS during the menopausal transition significantly more often than women with normotensive pregnancies.
From the 1Department of Cardiology, Isala Klinieken, Zwolle, the Netherlands; 2Julius Center for Health Sciences and Primary Care, University Medical Center Utrecht, Utrecht, the Netherlands; 3School of Population Health, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; and 4Department of Cardiology, University Medical Center St Radboud, Nijmegen, the Netherlands.
Received December 5, 2012; revised and accepted January 17, 2013.
Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.
Address correspondence to: José T. Drost, MD, Department of Cardiology, Isala Klinieken, Groot Wezenland 20, 8011 JW Zwolle, the Netherlands. E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org