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Assessment of sleep quality and correlates in a large cohort of Colombian women around menopause

Monterrosa-Castro, Alvaro MD1; Marrugo-Flórez, Martha MD2; Romero-Pérez, Ivette MD3; Fernández-Alonso, Ana M. MD, PhD4; Chedraui, Peter MD, MSc5; Pérez-López, Faustino R. MD, PhD6

doi: 10.1097/gme.0b013e31826e7649
Original Articles

Objective The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between self-reported sleep quality, menopausal symptom intensity, and correlates (including ethnicity) among middle-aged women.

Methods The present cross-sectional study involved 1,078 Colombian women aged 40 to 59 years who completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), the Menopause Rating Scale (MRS), and a general questionnaire exploring sociodemographic data.

Results The median [interquartile range] age of the whole sample was 49.0 [9.0] years. Among the participants, 45.4% were postmenopausal, 57.2% had increased body mass index values, 13.9% were black, 20.7% had hypertension, 74.1% had a stable partner, and 3.8% used hormone therapy. The prevalence of poor sleep quality was 57.1% (PSQI global score ≥5). Significant correlations between PSQI global scores and MRS total and subscale scores were found. Multiple linear regression analysis found that higher PSQI scores (poorer quality of sleep) correlated with higher MRS psychological and somatic subscale scores (more severe symptoms), smoking habit, and hypertension. Menopause status and black ethnicity were excluded from the final regression model.

Conclusions Despite study limitations, poor sleep quality is highly prevalent in this large middle-aged Colombian female sample and is related to menopausal symptom severity, tobacco use, and presence of hypertension.

From the 1Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Cartagena, Grupo de Investigación Salud de la Mujer, Cartagena, Colombia; 2Grupo de Investigación Salud de la Mujer, Barranquilla, Colombia; 3Grupo de Investigación Salud de la Mujer, Cali, Colombia; 4Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Torrecárdenas, Almería, Spain; 5Institute of Biomedicine, Facultad de Ciencias Médicas, Universidad Católica de Guayaquil, Guayaquil, Ecuador; and 6Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, Hospital Clínico Lozano Blesa, Zaragoza, Spain.

Received June 14, 2012; revised and accepted August 9, 2012.

Funding/support: This study was funded by the Calidad de Vida en la Menopausia y Etnias Colombianas research project sponsored through a grant to A.M.-C. provided by the Vice Rectoría de Investigación de la Universidad de Cartagena (Cartagena, Colombia).

Financial disclosure/conflicts of interest: None reported.

Address correspondence to: Faustino R. Pérez-López, MD, PhD, Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, University of Zaragoza Hospital Clínico, Domingo Miral s/n, Zaragoza 50009, Spain. E-mail:

© 2013 by The North American Menopause Society.