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Arpels John C.; Nachtigall, Robert D.
Menopause: April 1994
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The etiology for breast cancer remains elusive. The epidemiologic and in vitro evidence for the role played by exogenous ovarian hormones shows no consistent trend for or against causation. This review will look at three aspects of this problem. Many breast cancers are hormone independent, potentially driven by proto-oncogenes and genetic alterations. The breast has the ability to make its own endogenous estrogen, irrespective of exogenous hormone use. Progesterone plays an important role in normal breast homeo-stasis, one which may continue to be needed in the postmenopausal era.

©1994The North American Menopause Society