Short Communications: Clinical ResearchSuccessful use of rituximab for refractory hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis in a melanoma patient treated with targeted therapyTejedor, Ines; Tedbirt, Billal; Carvalho, Priscille; Duval-Modeste, Anne Bénédicte; Joly, Pascal; Hébert, Vivien Author Information Department of Dermatology, Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France Received 5 July 2021 Accepted 16 June 2022 Correspondence to Ines Tejedor, MD, Dermatology Department, Rouen University Hospital, 1 rue de Germont, 76031 Rouen Cedex, France, Tel: +33 232 88 80 79; fax: +33 232 88 88 55; e-mail: [email protected] Melanoma Research: December 2022 - Volume 32 - Issue 6 - p 485-487 doi: 10.1097/CMR.0000000000000845 Buy Metrics Abstract Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis (HLH) is a life-threatening disease characterized by aberrant immune hyperactivation of T CD8 lymphocytes and macrophages driven by cytokine dysfunction. We report a 64-year-old man, with advanced BRAF-mutant melanoma treated by combined targeted therapies who had a recalcitrant and cortico-dependent Epstein–Barr virus (EBV)-induced HLH. One rituximab cycle led to a rapid and prolonged HLH remission which allowed to switch the targeted therapy for immunotherapy rituximab thus makes it possible to limit the use of corticosteroids, which limits the effectiveness of immunotherapy. The patient finally died of a cerebral tumoral progression 2 years later. Despite secondary hypogammaglobulinemia, we did not observe any severe infections during this period. This case suggests that rituximab can be a valuable option for EBV-induced HLH to avoid the T-suppressive effects of high-dose of corticosteroids in immunotherapy-treated patients. Copyright © 2022 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.