Original Articles: Translational ResearchTissue microRNA expression profiling in hepatic and pulmonary metastatic melanomaDiVincenzo, Mallory J.a,,*; Latchana, Nicholasb,,*; Abrams, Zacharyc; Moufawad, Maribelled; Regan-Fendt, Kellyc; Courtney, Nicholas B.d; Howard, J. Harrisone; Gru, Alejandro A.f; Zhang, Xiaolic; Fadda, Paolod; Carson, William E.d,,eAuthor Information aDepartment of Veterinary Biosciences, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio, USA bDepartment of Surgery, University of Toronto, Toronto, Canada cDepartment of Biomedical Informatics dThe Arthur G. James Comprehensive Cancer Center and Richard J. Solove Research Institute eDepartment of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio fDepartment of Pathology, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia, USA *Mallory J. DiVincenzo and Nicholas Latchana contributed equally to the writing of this article. Received 24 February 2020 Accepted 9 July 2020 Supplemental Digital Content is available for this article. Direct URL citations appear in the printed text and are provided in the HTML and PDF versions of this article on the journal's website, www.melanomaresearch.com. Correspondence to William E. Carson III, MD, N924 Doan Hall, 410 W, 10th Avenue Columbus, OH 43210, USA, Tel: +1 614 293 6306; fax: +1 614 293 3465; e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org Melanoma Research: October 2020 - Volume 30 - Issue 5 - p 455-464 doi: 10.1097/CMR.0000000000000692 Buy SDC Metrics Abstract Malignant melanoma has a propensity for the development of hepatic and pulmonary metastases. MicroRNAs (miRs) are small, noncoding RNA molecules containing about 22 nucleotides that mediate protein expression and can contribute to cancer progression. We aim to identify clinically useful differences in miR expression in metastatic melanoma tissue. RNA was extracted from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded samples of hepatic and pulmonary metastatic melanoma, benign, nevi, and primary cutaneous melanoma. Assessment of miR expression was performed on purified RNA using the NanoString nCounter miRNA assay. miRs with greater than twofold change in expression when compared to other tumor sites (P value ≤ 0.05, modified t-test) were identified as dysregulated. Common gene targets were then identified among dysregulated miRs unique to each metastatic site. Melanoma metastatic to the liver had differential expression of 26 miRs compared to benign nevi and 16 miRs compared to primary melanoma (P < 0.048). Melanoma metastatic to the lung had differential expression of 19 miRs compared to benign nevi and 10 miRs compared to primary melanoma (P < 0.024). Compared to lung metastases, liver metastases had greater than twofold upregulation of four miRs, and 4.2-fold downregulation of miR-200c-3p (P < 0.0081). These findings indicate that sites of metastatic melanoma have unique miR profiles that may contribute to their development and localization. Further investigation of the utility of these miRs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers and their impact on the development of metastatic melanoma is warranted. Copyright © 2020 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.